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what determines the spread on the forex interbank rate when an ETF is sold in 2 different currencies on 2 different exchanges?
hello, I have a specific narrow question. It is not about whether one should invest in foreign currencies or whether one should buy hedged or non hedged ETFs. My question is the following: if an ETF is sold on 2 different exchanges in 2 different currencies (once again, same ETF), is the difference in price solely that of the interbank foreign exchange rate or does someone along the line take a cut in the foreign exchange rate. I would doubt the latter because it would rapidly be corrected by professional investors using arbitrage. thanks very much in advance for your time and help.
Can anyone give me some tips how to cheaply change my home currency (Croatia) to Euros? I am investing in ETFs and I find that this currency conversion is a large expense. I tried transferwise but their rates are the same as my home banks so no luck there.
The Next Crypto Wave: The Rise of Stablecoins and its Entry to the U.S. Dollar Market
Author: Christian Hsieh, CEO of Tokenomy This paper examines some explanations for the continual global market demand for the U.S. dollar, the rise of stablecoins, and the utility and opportunities that crypto dollars can offer to both the cryptocurrency and traditional markets. The U.S. dollar, dominant in world trade since the establishment of the 1944 Bretton Woods System, is unequivocally the world’s most demanded reserve currency. Today, more than 61% of foreign bank reserves and nearly 40% of the entire world’s debt is denominated in U.S. dollars1. However, there is a massive supply and demand imbalance in the U.S. dollar market. On the supply side, central banks throughout the world have implemented more than a decade-long accommodative monetary policy since the 2008 global financial crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the need for central banks to provide necessary liquidity and keep staggering economies moving. While the Federal Reserve leads the effort of “money printing” and stimulus programs, the current money supply still cannot meet the constant high demand for the U.S. dollar2. Let us review some of the reasons for this constant dollar demand from a few economic fundamentals.
Demand for U.S. Dollars
Firstly, most of the world’s trade is denominated in U.S. dollars. Chief Economist of the IMF, Gita Gopinath, has compiled data reflecting that the U.S. dollar’s share of invoicing was 4.7 times larger than America’s share of the value of imports, and 3.1 times its share of world exports3. The U.S. dollar is the dominant “invoicing currency” in most developing countries4. https://preview.redd.it/d4xalwdyz8p51.png?width=535&format=png&auto=webp&s=9f0556c6aa6b29016c9b135f3279e8337dfee2a6 https://preview.redd.it/wucg40kzz8p51.png?width=653&format=png&auto=webp&s=71257fec29b43e0fc0df1bf04363717e3b52478f This U.S. dollar preference also directly impacts the world’s debt. According to the Bank of International Settlements, there is over $67 trillion in U.S. dollar denominated debt globally, and borrowing outside of the U.S. accounted for $12.5 trillion in Q1 20205. There is an immense demand for U.S. dollars every year just to service these dollar debts. The annual U.S. dollar buying demand is easily over $1 trillion assuming the borrowing cost is at 1.5% (1 year LIBOR + 1%) per year, a conservative estimate. https://preview.redd.it/6956j6f109p51.png?width=487&format=png&auto=webp&s=ccea257a4e9524c11df25737cac961308b542b69 Secondly, since the U.S. has a much stronger economy compared to its global peers, a higher return on investments draws U.S. dollar demand from everywhere in the world, to invest in companies both in the public and private markets. The U.S. hosts the largest stock markets in the world with more than $33 trillion in public market capitalization (combined both NYSE and NASDAQ)6. For the private market, North America’s total share is well over 60% of the $6.5 trillion global assets under management across private equity, real assets, and private debt investments7. The demand for higher quality investments extends to the fixed income market as well. As countries like Japan and Switzerland currently have negative-yielding interest rates8, fixed income investors’ quest for yield in the developed economies leads them back to the U.S. debt market. As of July 2020, there are $15 trillion worth of negative-yielding debt securities globally (see chart). In comparison, the positive, low-yielding U.S. debt remains a sound fixed income strategy for conservative investors in uncertain market conditions. Source: Bloomberg Last, but not least, there are many developing economies experiencing failing monetary policies, where hyperinflation has become a real national disaster. A classic example is Venezuela, where the currency Bolivar became practically worthless as the inflation rate skyrocketed to 10,000,000% in 20199. The recent Beirut port explosion in Lebanon caused a sudden economic meltdown and compounded its already troubled financial market, where inflation has soared to over 112% year on year10. For citizens living in unstable regions such as these, the only reliable store of value is the U.S. dollar. According to the Chainalysis 2020 Geography of Cryptocurrency Report, Venezuela has become one of the most active cryptocurrency trading countries11. The demand for cryptocurrency surges as a flight to safety mentality drives Venezuelans to acquire U.S. dollars to preserve savings that they might otherwise lose. The growth for cryptocurrency activities in those regions is fueled by these desperate citizens using cryptocurrencies as rails to access the U.S. dollar, on top of acquiring actual Bitcoin or other underlying crypto assets.
The Rise of Crypto Dollars
Due to the highly volatile nature of cryptocurrencies, USD stablecoin, a crypto-powered blockchain token that pegs its value to the U.S. dollar, was introduced to provide stable dollar exposure in the crypto trading sphere. Tether is the first of its kind. Issued in 2014 on the bitcoin blockchain (Omni layer protocol), under the token symbol USDT, it attempts to provide crypto traders with a stable settlement currency while they trade in and out of various crypto assets. The reason behind the stablecoin creation was to address the inefficient and burdensome aspects of having to move fiat U.S. dollars between the legacy banking system and crypto exchanges. Because one USDT is theoretically backed by one U.S. dollar, traders can use USDT to trade and settle to fiat dollars. It was not until 2017 that the majority of traders seemed to realize Tether’s intended utility and started using it widely. As of April 2019, USDT trading volume started exceeding the trading volume of bitcoina12, and it now dominates the crypto trading sphere with over $50 billion average daily trading volume13. https://preview.redd.it/3vq7v1jg09p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=46f11b5f5245a8c335ccc60432873e9bad2eb1e1 An interesting aspect of USDT is that although the claimed 1:1 backing with U.S. dollar collateral is in question, and the Tether company is in reality running fractional reserves through a loose offshore corporate structure, Tether’s trading volume and adoption continues to grow rapidly14. Perhaps in comparison to fiat U.S. dollars, which is not really backed by anything, Tether still has cash equivalents in reserves and crypto traders favor its liquidity and convenience over its lack of legitimacy. For those who are concerned about Tether’s solvency, they can now purchase credit default swaps for downside protection15. On the other hand, USDC, the more compliant contender, takes a distant second spot with total coin circulation of $1.8 billion, versus USDT at $14.5 billion (at the time of publication). It is still too early to tell who is the ultimate leader in the stablecoin arena, as more and more stablecoins are launching to offer various functions and supporting mechanisms. There are three main categories of stablecoin: fiat-backed, crypto-collateralized, and non-collateralized algorithm based stablecoins. Most of these are still at an experimental phase, and readers can learn more about them here. With the continuous innovation of stablecoin development, the utility stablecoins provide in the overall crypto market will become more apparent.
In addition to trade settlement, stablecoins can be applied in many other areas. Cross-border payments and remittances is an inefficient market that desperately needs innovation. In 2020, the average cost of sending money across the world is around 7%16, and it takes days to settle. The World Bank aims to reduce remittance fees to 3% by 2030. With the implementation of blockchain technology, this cost could be further reduced close to zero. J.P. Morgan, the largest bank in the U.S., has created an Interbank Information Network (IIN) with 416 global Institutions to transform the speed of payment flows through its own JPM Coin, another type of crypto dollar17. Although people argue that JPM Coin is not considered a cryptocurrency as it cannot trade openly on a public blockchain, it is by far the largest scale experiment with all the institutional participants trading within the “permissioned” blockchain. It might be more accurate to refer to it as the use of distributed ledger technology (DLT) instead of “blockchain” in this context. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that as J.P. Morgan currently moves $6 trillion U.S. dollars per day18, the scale of this experiment would create a considerable impact in the international payment and remittance market if it were successful. Potentially the day will come when regulated crypto exchanges become participants of IIN, and the link between public and private crypto assets can be instantly connected, unlocking greater possibilities in blockchain applications. Many central banks are also in talks about developing their own central bank digital currency (CBDC). Although this idea was not new, the discussion was brought to the forefront due to Facebook’s aggressive Libra project announcement in June 2019 and the public attention that followed. As of July 2020, at least 36 central banks have published some sort of CBDC framework. While each nation has a slightly different motivation behind its currency digitization initiative, ranging from payment safety, transaction efficiency, easy monetary implementation, or financial inclusion, these central banks are committed to deploying a new digital payment infrastructure. When it comes to the technical architectures, research from BIS indicates that most of the current proofs-of-concept tend to be based upon distributed ledger technology (permissioned blockchain)19. https://preview.redd.it/lgb1f2rw19p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=040bb0deed0499df6bf08a072fd7c4a442a826a0 These institutional experiments are laying an essential foundation for an improved global payment infrastructure, where instant and frictionless cross-border settlements can take place with minimal costs. Of course, the interoperability of private DLT tokens and public blockchain stablecoins has yet to be explored, but the innovation with both public and private blockchain efforts could eventually merge. This was highlighted recently by the Governor of the Bank of England who stated that “stablecoins and CBDC could sit alongside each other20”. One thing for certain is that crypto dollars (or other fiat-linked digital currencies) are going to play a significant role in our future economy.
There is never a dull moment in the crypto sector. The industry narratives constantly shift as innovation continues to evolve. Twelve years since its inception, Bitcoin has evolved from an abstract subject to a familiar concept. Its role as a secured, scarce, decentralized digital store of value has continued to gain acceptance, and it is well on its way to becoming an investable asset class as a portfolio hedge against asset price inflation and fiat currency depreciation.Stablecoins have proven to be useful as proxy dollars in the crypto world, similar to how dollars are essential in the traditional world. It is only a matter of time before stablecoins or private digital tokens dominate the cross-border payments and global remittances industry. There are no shortages of hypes and experiments that draw new participants into the crypto space, such as smart contracts, new blockchains, ICOs, tokenization of things, or the most recent trends on DeFi tokens. These projects highlight the possibilities for a much more robust digital future, but the market also needs time to test and adopt. A reliable digital payment infrastructure must be built first in order to allow these experiments to flourish. In this paper we examined the historical background and economic reasons for the U.S. dollar’s dominance in the world, and the probable conclusion is that the demand for U.S. dollars will likely continue, especially in the middle of a global pandemic, accompanied by a worldwide economic slowdown. The current monetary system is far from perfect, but there are no better alternatives for replacement at least in the near term. Incremental improvements are being made in both the public and private sectors, and stablecoins have a definite role to play in both the traditional and the new crypto world. Thank you. Reference:  How the US dollar became the world’s reserve currency, Investopedia  The dollar is in high demand, prone to dangerous appreciation, The Economist  Dollar dominance in trade and finance, Gita Gopinath  Global trades dependence on dollars, The Economist & IMF working papers  Total credit to non-bank borrowers by currency of denomination, BIS  Biggest stock exchanges in the world, Business Insider  McKinsey Global Private Market Review 2020, McKinsey & Company  Central banks current interest rates, Global Rates  Venezuela hyperinflation hits 10 million percent, CNBC  Lebanon inflation crisis, Reuters  Venezuela cryptocurrency market, Chainalysis  The most used cryptocurrency isn’t Bitcoin, Bloomberg  Trading volume of all crypto assets, coinmarketcap.com  Tether US dollar peg is no longer credible, Forbes  New crypto derivatives let you bet on (or against) Tether’s solvency, Coindesk  Remittance Price Worldwide, The World Bank  Interbank Information Network, J.P. Morgan  Jamie Dimon interview, CBS News  Rise of the central bank digital currency, BIS  Speech by Andrew Bailey, 3 September 2020, Bank of England
MT5 international foreign exchange trading platform, recently the foreign exchange gold market is also on the rise
What is the foreign exchange market?Foreign exchange market (FOREx market) refers to the place or network where foreign exchange transactions take place.Mainly between local currency and foreign currency, foreign exchange transactions between different currencies.The foreign exchange market can be divided into two parts, namely the inter-bank foreign exchange market and the retail foreign exchange market.Interbank foreign exchange market can also be acquired as an inter-bank wholesale foreign exchange market, which is the uppermost market in foreign exchange transactions and the market for foreign exchange transactions among Banks, forming a relatively centralized foreign exchange market.In the interbank market, there is no such thing as margin trading.Retail forex market refers to the market between forex trading institutions and their clients. The most basic class in this market is individual traders, characterized by wide and dispersed distribution. The modern international foreign exchange market is generally distributed in major cities in the world, such as London, New York, Paris, Vertical, Zurich, Wellington, Tokyo, Singapore, Hong Kong and other world-famous financial centers and foreign exchange centers. The interconnections and influence of these centers form a foreign exchange network covering the whole world.Due to time zones and time differences, such a horizontal global market is almost always open and close one after another, forming a circular 24-hour foreign exchange market.In the global market, the UK, the US, Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan accounted for 77% of the global forex trading volume.At present, China's foreign exchange market is a market system centered on the inter-bank market. In the foreign exchange market, the exchange rate fluctuation refers to the exchange rate of changing currencies. The change in exchange rate is the decrease in the value of one currency and the increase in the value of another currency.A currency does not become a waste of paper, or even a dwindling currency, but it will always represent a certain value, unless the abolition of the currency is declared.You've had negative interest rates, you've had a plunge in stocks, you've had zero futures, you've had real estate, you've had a question mark as an investment hedge, and in many cases rents may not be worth the mortgage index.For domestic investors, the currency market is the most "clean" speculative market with little risk but great opportunity. Investors need not bother in the performance of each stock, futures long-short don't have to worry about both sides of the insider trading, daily turnover of huge, make any also does not have the dealer's courage, soros, buffett can learn about the information, as well as ordinary investors can learn, global investors and speculators are in the same time looking at the same price and graphics, several thousands of marketmakers network trading platform and the world millions of investors and speculators have together.
IM Academy - Are they/their "Affiliates" breaking FINRA regulations on Communications with the Public?
For the uninitiated, IM Academy, formerly iMarketsLive, is an MLM whose scheme centers around a SaaS model for their forex (foreign exchange) trading software. I'm still early in the research, but I think the way they get around the legal definition of a pyramid scheme is by providing referral commissions to their affiliates, who are the ones ultimately posting about their purported 'success' and the opportunities they want to share with their friends and families and doing the recruiting. Now, perhaps save for the ballsier MLM brands involved in health and wellness products, where running afoul of the FDA is the primary concern (and having worked as someone designing junk mail for a health food/grocery store [the owner of which was decidedly ANTI MLM, thank apollo] for a decade, I can tell you that the magic "These statements have not been endorsed by the FDA. These products are not meant to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease." is almost an impervious shield, if you're not a total sketchman and literally saying those things in the ad copy for the product), the SEC and the FTC are the regulatory bodies at play; and FINRA, I believe, is the US regulatory body overseeing forex, specifically. I dig economics. I like listening to economics shows. I've heard plenty of ads for forex trading solutions on the radio, and one constant is the inclusion at the end of the ad of a disclaimer saying, more or less, that 'Forex trading carries substantial risk and consumers should not trade more than what they can afford to lose', or something along those lines. Of course, the folks peddling IM Academy on facebook are just posting about the opportunity to make money trading forex. That got me thinking -- if the company is paying these guys commissions on referrals for the software, they are effectively communicating to the public. FINRA has some very specific guidelines on this (emphasis mine): Communications with the Public NASD Rule 2210, applicable to all FINRA members, prohibits firms from making any false, exaggerated, unwarranted or misleading statement or claim in any communication with the public. Rule 2210 is not limited to a broker-dealer's securities and investment banking business. A firm's forex-related communications—whether the firm is acting as a dealer or is soliciting forex business for a dealer—must be fair and balanced and based on principles of fair dealing and good faith, and firms must provide a sound basis for evaluating the facts regarding both the forex market generally, as well as the customers' specific transactions. These obligations may not be waived or met by disclaimer. New FINRA member firms that engage in forex-related activities must file their advertisements with FINRA. Rule 2210 requires any firm that has not previously filed advertisements with FINRA to file all of its advertisements at least 10 days prior to first use; this filing requirement continues for one year from the first submission. Rule 2210's internal approval, filing requirements and recording-keeping provisions also apply to forex-related communications. The rule requires that a registered principal give written approval of all advertisements and sales literature prior to use. Rule 2210 prohibits predictions or projections of performance, or the implication that past performance will recur. Communications used by firms in connection with retail forex activities may not tout future returns. The rule prohibits the omission of material facts or qualifications that would cause a communication to be misleading. Accordingly, firms' communications must adequately disclose the risks associated with forex trading, including the risks of highly leveraged trading. Firms must also make sure that their communications with the public are not misleading regarding, among other things:
The likelihood of profits or the risks of forex trading, including leveraged trading;• The firm's role in or compensation from the trade;
The firm's or the customer's access to the interbank currency market; or
The performance or accuracy of electronic trading platforms or software sold or licensed by or through the firm to customers in connection with forex trading, including falsely advertising claims regarding slippage rates.
FINRA also reminds firms that SIPC rules prohibit references to SIPC membership or protection in communications regarding commodities, including forex.
Am I onto something here? Even if IM Academy seems to skirt around the traditional definition of a pyramid scheme, their affiliates are breaking the regulations the company, at least, is obligated to adhere to. This IM Academy scheme specifically seems particularly predatory. I can see a vast gulf between being out a few hundred bucks on shitty inventory you'll never push and forex leverages, which can sometimes mean you losemore than you put in.
A forex broker, also known as a forex broker, or Retail Forex Their clients to access accounts and transaction through computer applications and platforms. A broker in the past was considered a single member of a profession and often worked at a unique agency called a brokerage house (or even merely a broker ). Commodities, derivatives and even insurance and property markets since the beginning of the modern era. And by phone , most brokers operated until the dawn of the internet age. Brokers would buy and sell, and clients can phone in their orders of transactions assets on behalf of the client's accounts. A concept for modern individual dealers is forex. Were much bigger, participants at the interdealer market were ready to Traditionally, foreign exchange has been traded on the interbank market by larger clients such as importers, exporters, banks and corporations who must trade currencies for industrial purposes and hedging from currency risks that were global. Forex is forex that is traded through traders, often Electronic Broking Services (EBS) system best top forex brokers. The brokerages Could provide Around the year 2000, retail agents began offering online An intermediary who buys and sells assets to get a commission or a specific asset is meant by in commercial and financial trading, currency trading agent. Therefore, a broker may be considered as a salesman of assets. The source of this term is uncertain, though it is considered to stem from older French.Frequently taking another side of a trade in order to offer liquidity for traders. Before the emergence of forex brokerages, individual trading amounts less than US$1 million were discouraged from entering the market by spreads that are large. Accounts to investors, streaming costs from the and banks Brokers And Dealers Retail forex brokers allow traders Are higher for clients than they are in the interdealer By investors or smaller. These companies are also known by the term"retail aggregators." Retail forex trading started to become popularised in the late 1990s with the development of financial trading. Into company, dealers and retail forex brokers went at that time to allow smaller dealers to get into markets that were formerly limited to large scale companies and institutions forex bonus. Retail forex brokerages act in the role of dealers, Market, but they have been found to narrow as trading volume climbs.  The interdealer market, which will be dominated by banks. Since the transaction volumes Service by bundling many small trades together and strengthening them in Account with a limited amount of assets and let them trade online via internet-based trading platforms. Forex is done through the spot currency market, although some agents deal in derivative products such as options and futures. Forex trading has been popularised among individual traders since brokers have offered them the chance to trade with margin accounts. These enable traders to efficiently forex trading tips capital to make a transaction, and multiply the main they use to trade by large amounts, up to 50 times their initial capital.  Provide liquidity for the brokers' rates that are accessible. Bid-ask spreads.
Back to the trenches I guess. Some of you might remember my last post over proffesional approaches to the markets. If not I suggest you take a look on it before reading this. https://www.reddit.com/Forex/comments/cxymyf/a_peek_into_how_financial_institutions_play_this/ I promised to discuss some stuff about macroeconomic approaches to forex, and well, with some delay here I am. Again, here I introduce the very same disclaimer. This is a professional approach, not coming from retail. Take everything with a grain of salt, and exercise proper due diligence with your approach. Sincerely hope you get something out of this post. An inconvenient, forex truth You've been there, struggling and suffering for a while. You have experienced the pain that the markets can unleash on you. You have left positions on the red for longer than your sanity could possible hold. You have opened positions that moved to the green, but you did not take any profits and you let that position slowly die and possibly causing huge loses. Now here you are , in October 2019, possibly as a breakeven trader, still suffering and trying. You have researched hundreds of indicators, if not thousands. You thought you have all sorted out with your RSI , stochastics and TDI. Yet you have switched between strategies more than you have changed your underpants in your whole life. Spent too many hours looking at the screen, wondering what the hell you are still missing. And the incovenient truth is that you want the glitz and the glamour, and the caviar, but you are not willing to eat the shit. And this is the shit: How are you expecting to make any good money on a field where you dont know virtually anything about it. Nor the substance that you are trading, nor what moves it. How are you actually expecting to beat guys that breath and eat economics?. You know literally nothing about volatility and liquidity, about interbanking flows , about puts and calls, market microestructure and price delivery mechanisms both on OTC markets and CME , what is GDP , how is calculated and why is critical. CPI, NMI, GDP to debt ratios, UST, repo markets, shadow banking, carry diferentials, how and why commodities alter certain currencies. EM vs G10 currencies, pegged vs unpegged. Balances of Payments.... When you hear "greeks" you are thinking about the Iliad or Athens. You know nothing about business and credit cycles. Valuation anchors, return to the mean, standard deviations, fair values. I could go on and on and on. Does this make you uncomfortable?It should. You have dozens of the best students that the world can produce, coming out of the London School of Economics, or from IT degrees in Harvard and MIT, all moving into freaking huge financial institutions, building complex system, doing incredible research . Funded to an extreme you can not imagine. Working in partnership with the IMF and Central Banks all aroundthe world. PhD's dedicating their lifes to such complex systems and situations....... and yet here you are, insolent and ignorant piece of s***, you that have been trying to make your "RSI" or "stochastic" work for 2 months, trying to beat this multi billion-trillionaire infrastrucure. Do you start to realize where the f*** do you stand? Do you really believe even for a freaking second that you can beat them on their game? Using RSI or Ichimoku? EAT.THIS.SHIT. And its not that technicals are not necesary. They are. But believe me, I (and most pro's that I've ever engaged with) spent less than 1/5 of the time actually managing trades and looking at price charts. If I'm not scalping , my day starts with me reading around 12 to 15 research papers coming from the main financial institutions, glued to my Reuters terminal reading more reports, looking at polls, updating my macroeconomic models with the latest data, performing calculations related to options...... only then, with a fundamental trading idea, I will move to evaluate technicals to see if the timing is good. I want to learn, how shall I procede? You want to build a lasting and enjoyable relationship with the market? EAT THE SHIT, and do all that is under your control to actually be able to open The Financial Times and understand what they are talking about. It will take you years, and for the education, hundreds of dollars. But this is how it goes if you want to get real. This is career, not a hobby. This is simply the way to be consistent. EAT THE SHIT. I compiled some resources to get you started: ACATIS Konferenz 2016, Mr. Koo, Surviving in the Intellectually Bankrupt Monetary Policy Environment - A great video coming from Nomura, to understand the actual shitty situation in the Eurozone. Online Courses - Look for IMF on EDX. Also, a fenomenal course on Banking and Money in Coursera. Books - Macroeconomics, Gregory Mankiw - Start here to graps the basic concepts Financial Times Guide to the Financial Markets Financial Times Guide to Banking Applied Financial Macroeconomics and Investment Strategy: A Practitioner’s Guide to Tactical Asset Allocation The Holy Grail of Macroeconomics: Lessons from Japan's Great Recession The Escape from Balance Sheet Recession and the QE Trap: A Hazardous Road for the World Economy The Other Half of Macroeconomics and the Fate of Globalization (English Edition) The new lombard street - how the fed became the dealer of last resort Foreign Exchange , Amy Middleton The Role of Currency in Institutional Portfolios, Momtchil Pojarliev and Richard M. Levich Currency Overlay: A Practical Guide, Second Edition, Hai Xin The Handbook of Corporate Financial Risk (2nd edition) Trade Stocks and Commodities with the Insiders: Secrets of the COT Report (Wiley Trading) How I Made One Million Dollars Last Year Trading Commodities Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy (English Edition) Trading And Exchanges: Market Microstructure For Practitioners The Microstructure Approach to Exchange Rates The Creature from Jekyll Island: A Second Look at the Federal Reserve Big Debt Crises Payments Systems in the U.S. - Third Edition: A Guide for the Payments Professional The Volatility Machine: Emerging Economics and the Threat of Financial Collapse (English Edition) Stabilizing an Unstable Economy
The world has become more connected; more people or corporates need to send money abroad for many reasons. If you live and working away from the home, time will definitely come when you have to make transfer to abroad to support your loved ones and other reasons. Outward Remittance is basically the same as an international money transfer. Many of the sender /customers live overseas and send their hard money to support their loved ones. For example, Parents do a wire transfer to University or their son/daughter’s account for the purpose of their education. To help them, please visit your nearest branch of Orient exchange or go to the website www.orientexchange.in Some of the tips to be followed for good convenience: The right place to Approach · Telegraphic transfers or process of sending money are made through ADII RBI license holders or banks or money changers. · Customers should remember that you just can not trust any individuals with the responsibility of sending money. · Experts recommend choosing a better exchange house /bank that has the international footprint which makes your money transfer easier and secure. Mode of transfer You need to choose the option to send money. One is Wire transfer and another is Demand draft. Wire transfer is done via SWIFT i.e. Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications. A swift transfer is the most secure and standard system which can be done by banks to their correspondents with each other. A demand draft can be sent abroad physically and takes a little bit of time to get cleared. In most of the time remittance will be received by the beneficiary bank in 48 hrs. Process of application Primarily, the customer has to send their documents /upload either online or visit the office or request for home verification of KYC and other relevant documents. The requirement of documents may slightly vary with the purpose behind sending the money. There is a limit set by RBI to individuals who remitting money abroad. RBI has placed an annual cap of $ 250000 to the individuals · Rate fixing: Customer can book their forex rate by paying 2% of the transaction value or they may pay after verification of documents. · Fees/charges: Many banks are involved in a single outward remittance through the SWIFT network. The customer is liable to pay extra fees. Two to three intermediary banks may handle the transfers so they can add their own charges. In addition to that own bank & receipt bank charges are also included in what you pay. Duration: Remitter to receiver ‘s account A swift transfer is transferring money between multiple banks before the funds credited to the seller’s /beneficiary account. This process will be completed from 1 to 5 working days depending on the countries where you transfer. What details are must for outward remittance transfer? *Beneficiary Details : Name of the beneficiary & Address of the Beneficiary *Payee Bank details : 1) SWIFT CODE: Swift code is known as Bank ID /SWIFT CODE/Identifier code. Each financial institution is having its own unique swift code. Swift code usually has 8 to 11 digit or characters. For Ex: BANK OF AMERICA transfer, SWIFT CODE is “ BOFAUS3N” 2) Beneficiary bank name 3) Beneficiary Bank Address and branch name 4) Beneficiary Bank Account Number 5) Currency wise bank details are additionally required: i) AED – IBAN ii) GBP – IBAN, Sort Code iii) CAD – Transit Number iv) AUD – BSB Code v) EUNZD/THB/SEK/SGD – IBAN Attention on the exchange rate: Customers always think about the best way to send Wire transfer at a cheap cost. In the current market scenario, customers should know that most of the banks or money exchangers don’t use the real exchange rate. Instead of that, add more margin on top of live rates. So, customers pay more or beneficiary to receive less. To avoid these hidden charges try using online services that provide you the live /real exchange rates on all wire transfers, Currency Exchange, forex card etc….
Did Revolut just add a hidden 0.10% fee for exchange rates?
I am a heavy user of Revolut's great currency exchange system, however recently I discovered they added a hidden 0.1% fee. First of all, I am a Premium user with free unlimited currency exchanges ( https://i.imgur.com/0eosYkm.png) and I did this on a business day (Monday), so the default fees are excluded. In my example I am using EUR to RON exchange. The live interbank exchange rate bid is 4.7213 (as can be seen on Saxo Bank's member trading area) https://i.imgur.com/ohefpgY.png, however on Revolut all I get is 4.7164https://i.imgur.com/x6REiup.png. Math: real rate 4.7213 - 0.10% = 4.7165. Same for RON>EUR. Can anyone else confirm? UPDATE: I contacted support. At first the initial chat agent was rambling and giving me random FAQ info. He eventually escalated the discussion with a "manager" which pointed out that the exchange rate used was from "Forex-ICE" platform which does seem to have had a lower rate at that time https://i.imgur.com/qKHteKI.jpg. Not sure yet why was I given that rate instead of the better one.
Blockchain technology is multifaceted and allows you to implement the most daring and unexpected projects, which are significantly superior in all respects to the very first cryptocurrency – Bitcoin. One such project was Ripple, which was originally created as a faster, safer and cheaper alternative to interbank transfers. Thanks to the efforts of developers and moving away from the traditional structure of the distributed network, Ripple eventually became one of the few projects that combine the functionality of a payment system and a universal platform that allows participants to exchange liquidity for various assets, including but not limited to Fiat currencies. Ripple cryptocurrency is often compared to Bitcoin, but not because they are similar. On the contrary, we are talking about such large-scale differences that part of the crypto community doubts whether Ripple is a cryptocurrency? Judge: To ensure high performance and increase throughput, developers had to abandon the traditional distributed network system, where each participant has equal rights with the rest. In the ripple network, node computers have more privileges – they are in constant relationship, searching for consensus and forming a ledger-a distributed database that is similar to the Bitcoin blockchain, but still is not a chain of blocks in the "classical" sense. The very idea of blockchain implies the creation of an unbroken and unchanging structure. It is impossible to cancel an already committed transaction that has passed through the block mining procedure. This statement is true for the Bitcoin network, but not for Ripple, which officially has a procedure for cancellation of payment, and therefore-and a single control center, which can affect the functioning of the entire system. The fact of violation of one of the fundamental provisions on the structure of decentralized anonymous networks, which directly points to the equality of powers and rights of each of the participants, is the main reason for the heated debate about the true nature of Ripple. Based on the analysis of official information from developers, it is really hard to decide whether Ripple is an ordinary payment system that successfully "masquerades" as a cryptocurrency or it is an innovative solution, one of the few that is able to link the world of the real economy and cryptocurrency . If we continue the line of comparison with Ripple and Bitcoin, one of the most fundamental differences between them will be the complete absence of mining. Immediately after the launch of Ripla, 100 billion tokens of the internal cryptocurrency XRP were "PreMain". To date, only 55% of the total number of coins issued is in circulation, but since January 2018, developers have been putting 1 billion XRP into circulation through exchanges every month. The concentration, in fact, in one hand more than half of the entire money supply inevitably generates talk about the high risk of investing in this cryptocurrency. In addition, there is one unpleasant moment in the history of Ripple related to the attempt to sell a large number of XRP coins by one of the former members of the development team, which does not add to investors ' confidence in the overall reliability. But the most important difference between Ripple is a fundamentally different purpose of cryptocurrency. Bitcoin was conceived as an anonymous payment system, but has turned into an investment tool for those who love risk, and the entire Bitcoin network is actually only engaged in servicing transfers between participants. The creators of Ripple do not try to use competition among token holders to increase the overall capitalization of the system. One of the confirmations of this point of view is the constant rise in price of the Bitcoin mining process, which serves as one of the factors pushing its rate up. But Ripple Labs chose a different strategy: they are trying (and not without success) to attract major players in the financial market, offering them to become members of the network and supply liquidity (live Fiat money). The role of the internal cryptocurrency is reduced to the function of a universal transmitting and connecting link between counterparties that can not carry out direct conversion operations between the used instruments from the world of the real economy. In fact, Ripple is a combination of traditional and decentralized payment systems: the search for consensus and the implementation of transfers are entrusted to nodes that are large financial institutions with their own funds in Fiat currencies. And if other projects of the crypto world issue slogans about the imminent and imminent demise of the traditional banking sector under the influence of blockchain technology, Ripple, on the contrary, expands the horizon of possibilities of banks and financial institutions, offering them a more profitable and universal algorithm for domestic and international payments. But, despite the fact that Ripple has existed for quite a long time, while it is a competition to the same SWIFT only formally: daily turnover is not comparable either in volume or in the number of operations. And although Ripple is consistently moving towards attracting more large participants (American Express and Money Gram have already become partners), it is still very far from the level of a global and universally recognized payment system. For a private person, Ripple is not only a convenient payment system with guaranteed liquidity and instant transfers (but not anonymous-this is the requirement of member banks and legislation). Due to the presence on the largest crypto exchanges, private investors can successfully earn on fluctuations in the exchange rate of XRP to the dollar and other cryptocurrencies. The second way is to trade through a Forex broker company, you should choose a dealing center that offers a CFD (contract for difference) with Ripple-there are not very many of them yet. More https://brave.com/fra293
Is it accurate to say that you are intending to travel abroad on a family trip? Do you have to make a cash remittance abroad to a family member? Do you need to exchange currency for paying educational charges in a college you applied for? All things considered, reasons can be numerous yet the exchange of currency is simpler with choices available today. Banks offer you a fixed rate of exchange on currency and you additionally need to pay an nominal charge for the exchange. Moneychangers offer you a constant exchange rate, in contrast to other online sites. On the off chance if you stay in delhi, at that point the currency exchange in delhi is currently much simpler. Currency exchange in Delhi - Online option On the off chance that you are thinking the best currency exchange rates in delhi, at that point the easiest way to exchange the currency through online sites today. A site like Bookmyforex.com offers currency rates that are superior than the bank rates and moneychangers. You'll get the advantage of live market rates on exchange. The site gives you a chance to pick a rate and lock the rate for three days. By paying an upfront charge of 2%, you'll have the option to locked the rate for three days. Book your rate at a similar cost as appeared on the site. The live market rates are refreshed at every three seconds. With an online forex exchange advantage, you can get the most ideal arrangement on the exchange. Best rate advantage Currency Exchange rates in delhi vary as indicated by market situations. Be that as it may, Forex rates do play a major role in the transformation of currency . On the off chance that the rates are low, you'll get the advantage of the best exchange and it will also save your money. Foreign money exchange in delhi offer the best deals online. Bookmyforex.com offers you a reasonable rate advantage. You can pick a rate and order your money by making an online payment. By signing on to the site, you'll have the option to pick the best rate and get your cash exchanged. The best part is the rate alert feature tells you about your ideal rate. After setting your rate, you can decide to convert the currency you need. No additional Costs Banks offer you rates that are steady and you'll need to pay included expenses the exchange. Currency exchange in delhi with Bookmyforex.com gives you the advantage of no additional expenses. At the point when you exchange or convert your cash, you won't need to pay added fees not at all like what banks and cash changers offer you. The best part is there is no shrouded expense for change. You can get forex trade in delhi at accurate interbank rates too.Currency exchange rates in delhi are offered best on online website like Bookmyforex.com. So exploit it whenever you have to exchange your money.
Forex card is also called as Travelcard or Prepaid card. It can be used to make a payment when you visit abroad. You can preload the currency of the place before traveling that enables you to access money for any purchase you make abroad. The best part is the Forex card in India is available without any added charges. You can buy a Forex card from online Forex sites. A site like Bookmyforex.com offers you a Forex card with added features. Forex card rates can fluctuate according to the market. But, you'll get easy access to the best rates from the site. Bookmyforex reloads card feature also lets you reload when there is no money left in the card, which can save your time. Bookmyforex Travel/Forex card Forex cards are accepted anywhere across the globe. Irrespective of your location, you can buy a Forex card online in India. The Forex card is acceptable in more than 30 million sites and 2 million ATMs. Its also accepted in more than 1 million eCommerce sites. You can load up to 16 currencies in your Travel or Forex card. It lets you use the same multi-currency card in multiple countries. You don't have to load individual currencies of the place in the Forex card. If you need to travel to two countries, this is the easiest option available. No hidden charges International Debit and Credit cards charge you extra for every spending you make on your trip. Unlike these cards that levy a charge of 2 to 3.5% on an exchange, Forex cards offer to exchange currency for free. You don't have to pay apart from the nominal charge for the card, there are no added exchange charges so that is the biggest advantage. Also, you don't have to pay to buy a Forex card. All the charges are made at exact interbank rates. Applying for a Forex card You can apply for a Forex card online from the site Bookmyforex.com. When you choose the option to buy Forex card, you need to provide relevant details of your valid passport, a valid visa of the country you are travailing to. You also need to provide a confirmed ticket with travel within 60 days along with your PAN card details. When all your documents are verified by the site, you'll have to make payment. You'll receive your Forex card as early as 24 hours from the site with the home delivery option available. The eligible age to apply for the Forex card is 14 years. It can also be handy for your children planning to study abroad. Reloading of the Forex card Bookmyforex reloads card option provides you with a simple reloading option. You need to ask for a reload form, fill in the form, scan and send the document via email. After you mail the document, you'll receive the payment link from the site. Make the payment and your card will be reloaded within 24 hours. Even if you are out of cash on your foreign trip, the reloading option is like a savior for you. You don't need to spend on your credit card anymore. The features of the Forex card Forex cards can be carried at a fixed rate so you don't have to worry about fluctuations in the rates. You don't have to pay extra every time you need to reload a Forex card. It is safe and expedient to use. The Forex Card can be reloaded at any time and from any place so you don't have to think about the location. You'll be given cash assistance from Bookmyforex.com when you lose your card or someone steals it. The balance amount can also be blocked if you lose your card and the remaining balance can be transferred to a new Forex card. There is an add on card facility available on the Forex card that makes your experience even better. Forex card has many names like Bookmyforex travel card, prepaid card, multicurrency card but it serves the same purpose of providing you with complete flexibility. You can access money in local currency abroad with the card. Log on to Bookmyforex.com to apply for a Forex card today. Make your travel experience fun with hassle-free money.
Originally posted by Darkstar at Forex Factory. Disclaimer: I did not write this. I found this post on ForexFactory written by a user called DarkStar, which I believe a lot of redditors will benefit from reading. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ There has been much discussion of late regarding borker spreads and liquidity. Many assumptions are being made about why spreads are widened during news time that are built on an incomplete knowledge of the architecture of the forex market in general. The purpose of this article is to dissect the market and hopefully shed some light on the situation so that a more rational and productive discussion can be undertaken by the Forex Factory members. We will begin with an explanation of the purpose of the Forex market and how it is utilized by its primary participants, expand into the structure and operation of the market, and conclude with the implications of this information for speculators. With that having been said, let us begin. Unlike the various bond and equity markets, the Forex market is not generally utilized as an investment medium. While speculation has a critical role in its proper function, the lion’s share of Forex transactions are done as a function of international business. The guy who buys a shiny new Eclipse more then likely will pay for it with US Dollars. Unfortunately Mitsubishi’s factory workers in Japan need to get their paychecks denominated in Yen, so at some point a conversion needs to be made. When one considers that companies like Exxon, Boeing, Sony, Dell, Honda, and thousands of other international businesses move nearly every dollar, real, yen, rubble, pound, and euro they make in a foreign country through the Forex market, it isn’t hard to understand how insignificant the speculative presence is; even in a $2tril per day market. By and large, businesses don’t much care about the intricacies of exchange rates, they just want to make and sell their products. As a central repository of a company’s money, it was only natural that the banks would be the facilitators of these transactions. In the old days it was easy enough for a bank to call a foreign bank (or a foreign branch of ones own bank) and swap the stockpiles of currency each had accumulated from their many customers. Just as any business would, the banks bought the foreign currency at one rate and marked it up before selling it to the customer. With that the foreign exchange spread was born. This was (and still is) a reasonable cost of doing business. Mitsubishi can pay its customers and the banks make a nice little profit for the hassle and risks associated with moving around the currency. As a byproduct of transacting all this business, bank traders developed the ability to speculate on the future of currency rates. Utilizing a better understanding of the market, a bank could quote a business a spread on the current rate but hold off hedging until a better one came along. This process allowed the banks to expand their net income dramatically. The unfortunate consequence was that liquidity was redistributed in a way that made certain transactions impossible to complete. It was for this reason and this reason alone that the market was eventually opened up to non-bank participants. The banks wanted more orders in the market so that a) they could profit from the less experienced participants, and b) the less experienced participants could provide a better liquidity distribution for execution of international business hedge orders. Initially only megacap hedge funds (such as Soros’s and others) were permitted, but it has since grown to include the retail brokerages and ECNs. Market Structure: Now that we have established why the market exists, let’s take a look at how the transactions are facilitated: The top tier of the Forex market is transacted on what is collectively known as the Interbank. Contrary to popular belief the Interbank is not an exchange; it is a collection of communication agreements between the world’s largest money center banks. To understand the structure of the Interbank market, it may be easier to grasp by way of analogy. Consider that in an office (or maybe even someone’s home) there are multiple computers connected via a network cable. Each computer operates independently of the others until it needs a resource that another computer possesses. At that point it will contact the other computer and request access to the necessary resource. If the computer is working properly and its owner has given the requestor authorization to do so, the resource can be accessed and the initiating computers request can be fulfilled. By substituting computers for banks and resources for currency, you can easily grasp the relationships that exist on the Interbank. Anyone who has ever tried to find resources on a computer network without a server can appreciate how difficult it can be to keep track of who has what resources. The same issue exists on the Interbank market with regard to prices and currency inventory. A bank in Singapore may only rarely transact business with a company that needs to exchange some Brazilian Real and it can be very difficult to establish what a proper exchange rate should be. It is for this purpose that EBS and Reuters (hereafter EBS) established their services. Layered on top (in a manner of speaking) of the Interbank communication links, the EBS service enables banks to see how much and at what prices all the Interbank members are willing to transact. Pains should be taken to express that EBS is not a market or a market maker; it is an application used to see bids and offers from the various banks. The second tier of the market exists essential within each bank. By calling your local Bank of America branch you can exchange any foreign currency you would like. More then likely they will just move some excess currency from one branch to another. Since this is a micro-exchange with a single counterparty, you are basically at their mercy as to what exchange rate they will quote you. Your choice is to accept their offer or shop a different bank. Everyone who trades the forex market should visit their bank at least once to get a few quotes. It would be very enlightening to see how lucrative these transactions really are. Branching off of this second tier is the third tier retail market. When brokers like Oanda, Forex.com, FXCM, etc. desire to establish a retail operation the first thing they need is a liquidity provider. Nine in ten of these brokers will sign an agreement with just one bank. This bank will agree to provide liquidity if and only if they can hedge it on EBS inclusive of their desired spread. Because the volume will be significantly higher a single bank patron will transact, the spreads will be much more competitive. By no means should it be expected these tier 3 providers will be quoted precisely what exists on the Interbank. Remember the bank is in the business of collecting spreads and no agreement is going to suspend that priority. Retail forex is almost akin to running a casino. The majority of its participants have zero understanding how to trade effectively and as a result are consistent losers. The spread system combined with a standard probability distribution of returns gives the broker a built in house advantage of a few percentage points. As a result, they have all built internal order matching systems that play one loser off against a winner and collect the spread. On the occasions when disequilibrium exists within the internal order book, the broker hedges any exposure with their tier 2 liquidity provider. As bad as this may sound, there are some significant advantages for speculators that deal with them. Because it is an internal order book, many features can be provided which are otherwise unavailable through other means. Non-standard contract sizes, high leverage on tiny account balances, and the ability to transact in a commission free environment are just a few of them… An ECN operates similar to a Tier 2 bank, but still exists on the third tier. An ECN will generally establish agreements with several tier 2 banks for liquidity. However instead of matching orders internally, it will just pass through the quotes from the banks, as is, to be traded on. It’s sort of an EBS for little guys. There are many advantages to the model, but it is still not the Interbank. The banks are going to make their spread or their not go to waste their time. Depending on the bank this will take the form of price shading or widened spreads depending on market conditions. The ECN, for its trouble, collects a commission on each transaction. Aside from the commission factor, there are some other disadvantages a speculator should consider before making the leap to an ECN. Most offer much lower leverage and only allow full lot transactions. During certain market conditions, the banks may also pull their liquidity leaving traders without an opportunity to enter or exit positions at their desired price. Trade Mechanics: It is convenient to believe that in a $2tril per day market there is always enough liquidity to do what needs to be done. Unfortunately belief does not negate the reality that for every buyer there MUST be a seller or no transaction can occur. When an order is too large to transact at the current price, the price moves to the point where open interest is abundant enough to cover it. Every time you see price move a single pip, it means that an order was executed that consumed (or otherwise removed) the open interest at the current price. There is no other way that prices can move. As we covered earlier, each bank lists on EBS how much and at what price they are willing to transact a currency. It is important to note that no Interbank participant is under any obligation to make a transaction if they do not feel it is in their best interest. There are no “market makers” on the Interbank; only speculators and hedgers. Looking at an ECN platform or Level II data on the stock market, one can get a feel for what the orders on EBS look like. The following is a sample representation: You’ll notice that there is open interest (Level II Vol figures) of various sizes at different price points. Each one of those units represents existing limit orders and in this example, each unit is $1mil in currency. Using this information, if a market sell order was placed for 38.4mil, the spread would instantly widen from 2.5 pips to 4.5 pips because there would no longer be any orders between 1.56300 and 1.56345. No broker, market maker, bank, or thief in the night widened the spread; it was the natural byproduct of the order that was placed. If no additional orders entered the market, the spread would remain this large forever. Fortunately, someone somewhere will deem a price point between those 2 figures an appropriate opportunity to do something and place an order. That order will either consume more interest or add to it, depending whether it is a market or limit order respectively. What would have happened if someone placed a market sell order for 2mil just 1 millisecond after that 38.4 mil order hit? They would have been filled at 1.5630 Why were they “slipped”? Because there was no one to take the other side of the transaction at 1.56320 any longer. Again, nobody was out screwing the trader; it was the natural byproduct of the order flow. A more interesting question is, what would happen if all the listed orders where suddenly canceled? The spread would widen to a point at which there were existing bids and offers. That may be 5,7,9, or even 100 pips; it is going to widen to whatever the difference between a bid and an offer are. Notice that nobody came in and “set” the spread, they just refused to transact at anything between it. Nothing can be done to force orders into existence that don’t exist. Regardless what market is being examined or what broker is facilitating transactions, it is impossible to avoid spreads and slippage. They are a fact of life in the realm of trading. Implications for speculators: Trading has been characterized as a zero sum game, and rightly so. If trader A sells a security to trader B and the price goes up, trader A lost money that they otherwise could have made. If it goes down, Trader A made money from trader B’s mistake. Even in a huge market like the Forex, each transaction must have a buyer and a seller to make a trade and one of them is going to lose. In the general realm of trading, this is materially irrelevant to each participant. But there are certain situations where it becomes of significant importance. One of those situations is a news event. Much has been made of late about how it is immoral, illegal, or downright evil for a broker, bank, or other liquidity provider to withdraw their order (increasing the spread) and slip orders (as though it was a conscious decision on their part to do so) more then normal during these events. These things occur for very specific reasons which have nothing to do with screwing anyone. Let us examine why: Leading up to an economic report for example, certain traders will enter into positions expecting the news to go a certain way. As the event becomes immanent, the banks on the Interbank will remove their speculative orders for fear of taking unnecessary losses. Technical traders will pull their orders as well since it is common practice for them to avoid the news. Hedge funds and other macro traders are either already positioned or waiting until after the news hits to make decisions dependent on the result. Knowing what we now know, where is the liquidity necessary to maintain a tight spread coming from? Moving down the food chain to Tier 2; a bank will only provide liquidity to an ECN or retail broker if they can instantly hedge (plus their requisite spread) the positions on Interbank. If the Interbank spreads are widening due to lower liquidity, the bank is going to have to widen the spreads on the downstream players as well. At tier 3 the ECN’s are simply passing the banks offers on, so spreads widen up to their customers. The retailers that guarantee spreads of 2 to 5 pips have just opened a gaping hole in their risk profile since they can no longer hedge their net exposure (ever wonder why they always seem to shut down or requote until its over?). The variable spread retailers in turn open up their spreads to match what is happening at the bank or they run into the same problems fixed spreads broker are dealing with. Now think about this situation for a second. What is going to happen when a number misses expectations? How many traders going into the event with positions chose wrong and need to get out ASAP? How many hedge funds are going to instantly drop their macro orders? How many retail traders’ straddle orders just executed? How many of them were waiting to hear a miss and executed market orders? With the technical traders on the sidelines, who is going to be stupid enough to take the other side of all these orders? The answer is no one. Between 1 and 5 seconds after the news hits it is a purely a 1 way market. That big long pin bar that occurs is a grand total of 2 prices; the one before the news hit and the one after. The 10, 20, or 30 pips between them is called a gap. Is it any wonder that slippage is in evidence at this time? Conclusions: Each tier of the Forex market has its own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Depending on your priorities you have to make a choice between what restrictions you can live with and those you cant. Unfortunately, you can’t always get what you want. By focusing on slippage and spreads, which are the natural byproduct of order flow, one is not only pursuing a futile ideal, they are passing up an enormous opportunity to capitalize on true inefficiencies. News events are one of the few times where a large number of players are positioned inappropriately and it is fairly easy to profit from their foolishness. If a trader truly wants to make the leap to the next level of profitability they should be spending their time figuring out how identify these positions and trading with the goal of capturing the price movement they inevitably will cause. Nobody is going to make the argument that a broker is a trader’s best friend, but they still provide a valuable service and should be compensated for their efforts. By accepting a broker for what it is and learning how to work within the limitations of the relationship, traders have access to a world of opportunity that they otherwise could never dream of capturing. Let us all remember that simple truth.
Are you planning to travel abroad on a family trip? Do you need to make an emergency cash remittance abroad to a relative? Do you need to exchange currency for paying educational fees in a university you applied for? Well, reasons can be many but the exchange of currency is easier with options available today. Banks offer you a fixed rate of exchange on currency and you also have to pay a nominal fee for the exchange. Most people still take the traditional route for exchange and go to Moneychangers. Moneychangers offer you a constant exchange rate, unlike online sites. If you stay in Pune, then the currency exchange in pune is now even easier. Currency exchange in Pune- Online option If you are thinking currency exchange near me then the easiest way to exchange is through online sites today. A site like Bookmyforex.com offers currency rates that are better than bank rates and moneychangers. You'll get the benefit of live market rates on exchange. The site lets you choose a rate and lock the rate for three days. By paying an upfront fee of 2%, you'll be able to use the locked rate for three days. Book your rate at the same price as shown on the site. The live market rates are updated every three seconds. With an online forex exchange advantage, you can get the best possible deal on the exchange. Best rate advantage Currency exchange rates in Pune fluctuate according to market conditions. But, Forex rates do play a big role in the conversion of currency. If the rates are low, you'll get the benefit of the best exchange and it will also save your money. Foreign money exchange in pune offer the best deals online. Bookmyforex.com offers you a fair rate advantage. You can choose a rate and order your money by making an online payment. By logging on to the site, you'll be able to choose the best rate and get your currency exchanged. The best part is the rate alert feature lets you know about your desired rate. Upon setting your rate, you can choose to convert the currency you need. No added costs Banks offer you rates that are constant and you'll have to pay added fees on the exchange. Currency exchange in Pune with Bookmyforex.com gives you the advantage of no added costs. When you exchange or convert your currency, you will not have to pay added fees unlike what banks and money changers offer you. The best part is there is no hidden fee for conversion. You can get Foreign exchange in pune at exact interbank rates as well. Bookmyforex.com helps to save your effort and added costs. Currency exchange rates in pune are offered best on online site like Bookmyforex.com. So take advantage of it the next time you need to exchange your currency.
Press Conference with the Governor of the People's Bank of China 任中国人民银行行长 Yi Gang 易纲 on current monetary and regulatory matters in the People's Republic of China for the year 2022
Dear Ladies and Gentlemen The People's Bank of China (PBOC) is gladdened to announce that the efforts made by the Bank to consolidate financial markets and reign in unproductive credit and the misappropriation in debt lending are seeing bountiful returns. For the 2022 year forecast, we are thus heartened to state that the economy has exponentially preformed to bring growth above 7 percent, beating negative analysis on efforts on the PBOC and government's meaningful reforms to address core structural issues that have threatened the Chinese and global economy. While we have identified specific measures in relation to consumer demand and business growth, in conjunction with the improving regulatory framework, we foresee promising inflationary movement and are pleased to see an adaptive labour market take hold in overall trends for key benchmarks. In regards to the current developments in the Banks's stimulus efforts, we shall maintain the current level of market guidance and capital assistance. While we continue this approach, we are constantly assessing the Mainland's capital markets liquidity and should concerns be spotted that identify general overheating, the PBOC is ready to address those concerns and enforce targeted measures. Now, onto the main elements of the year's statement: the current status on the internationalisation of the Renminbi and policy responses to optimise a favourable environment as well as new guidelines on capital market The following discussion shall be complimented with the following handout:
The Renminbi - The People's Currency, and Soon the World's?
The Continued Dollar Dominance
First, a blunt fact: while multiple reserve currencies have co-existed before, and of course dominance today does not guarantee dominance in the future, with the British pound's fall as a gentle reminder of this, the PBOC is pragmatic in stating that dollar's demise looks a long ways off. Part of this is the on-the-ground data indicating that the drive to internationalisation has indeed lost much of its momentum as a reserve currency.
There is no better reminder that the US dollar is dominant than the rout across emerging market economies sine 2016-2020. The worst-performing currencies of 2019 shared a disproportionate reliance on the greenback. In 2015, 62 per cent of countries anchored their currencies to the dollar and about the same percentage of developing countries borrow in the currency.
On the other hand, less than 30 per cent of countries use the euro as an anchor for their exchange rates and only 13 per cent of external debt for developing countries is euro-denominated. The pound and the yen barely show up in the data.
When it comes to global currency reserves held by central banks, the dollar is unrivalled. While its share of global foreign-exchange reserves has fallen for five consecutive quarters, global central banks have more or less held some 60 per cent or more of their reserves in the greenback since 1996. Even with a loss of confidence in US markets, forex holdings in the Renminbi have been somewhat insignificant.
Chinese Efforts to Open Up the Renminbi - An Uneven Effort
In March 2019, China introduced its first renminbi-denominated oil futures contract, an attempt to have an alternative for domestic and international investors and traders to the petro-dollar order. However until the central government creates bilateral agreement with major oil-producing (OPEC) states to accept payment in Renminbi, this will continue to see sub-optimal results.
Since gaining a spot in the IMF's Special Drawing Rights basket of reserve currencies in 2015, China has also extended local currency swaps with various countries, including those along its landmark Belt and Road initiative, as well as took steps to open up its local bond market to foreign investors. Though given the sputtering results in BRI agreements and the concerns on excessive lending to questionable projects/governments, the BRI as a route to internationalisation has taken a backseat for policy makers.
Of concern to the PBOC and MOF policy analysts is that internationalisation of China's currency has stalled, and by some measures even reversed. As in 2016, the Renminbi was the fifth most actively used currency for domestic and international payments, with a roughly 2 per cent share, according to SWIFT. That's a drop from 2014 and 2015 when the use of China's currency doubled — in a year — to 2.8 per cent.
When only international payments are considered, the Renminbi drops to eighth place behind: the dollar, which comprises nearly 45 per cent; the euro with 32 per cent; followed by the Japanese yen, British pound, Swiss franc, Canadian dollar and Australian dollar, which all have a share of 5 per cent or less.
Allowing market forces to play a larger role in determining the Renminbi's value and opening up the capital account would require a complete overhaul of the country's financial system. While we realise that such a policy shift would bring some expected gains, the PBOC sees little reason to make a great pivot towards liberalisation, but instead a concerted series of smaller policies - or to put it more traditionally, 'Crossing the river by grasping the stones on the riverbed.'
Making The Cross Across the Riverbed Towards A More Global Renminbi The PBOC has issued the following in its Guiding Measures to the Chinese Mainland and SAR financial markets:
A new rule shall be instituted on cross-border Renminbi FDI which stipulates that, in principle, all the foreign enterprises are allowed to raise Renminbi funds in offshore Renminbi markets and repatriate them back to the mainland in the form of FDI. Previously, the foreign firms’ behaviours of remitting Renminbi back into Mainland were subjected to the PBOC’s approval on a case-by-case basis.
These transactions are to be settled in Hong Kong accounts, thus increasing the amount of Yuan in circulation offshore; these offshore Renminbi will be distinctly referred to as CNH rather than the onshore CNY. Furthermore, this allows the PBOC to act should the policy be abused by market speculators looking for an easy entry into China's domestic capital markets.
This new rule will further buoy the offshore Renminbi (“Dim Sum”) bond market and accelerate the pace of Renminbi internationalisation.
The Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs shall begin to broker with OPEC states an agreement on settlement of trade in crude oil and its derivatives be conducted in Renminbi, in a further boost to the Shanghai International Energy Exchange and Shanghai crude oil futures market.
The extension of the “mini-QFII” scheme to India, Pakistan, ASEAN, the Republic of Korea and Japan which will allow some foreign central banks, beyond only a handful of smaller nearby Asian countries, to start building a limited amount of currency reserves even before anything like full currency convertibility will be authorised and conducted. QFII stands for Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor, a designation that allows a company to invest in Chinese bonds and equities — though again, within guiding limits issued by the PBOC on a case-by-case basis.
Regulators will begin a similar pilot scheme - RQFII - that would allow financial institutions with a physical mainland presence to remit currency from their Hong Kong subsidiaries back to the mainland — and, potentially, foreign central banks to invest small amounts of Renminbi in the Chinese interbank bond market.
The Hong Kong Monetary Authority already has QFII status, and the Monetary Authority of Singapore has applied, with the PBOC accepting further applications.
Foreign institutions will be given a capped access of no more than $100 million in Hong Kong accounts to derivatives, including financial futures, commodity futures and options in testing the markets' reaction to foreign operators.
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Although it might seem easy to invest in Forex nowadays, by just logging into an account with a broker, deposit some money and start actively trading; it has not always been like this, as forex industry has rapidly changed in the past three decades. Before technology and free-floating currencies took over the industry, world currency exchanges were operating under the Bretton Woods System of Money Management. This agreement established rules for commercial and financial relations among top economies, tying their currencies to gold. Hence, a currency note issued by any world government represented a real amount of gold held in a vault by that nation. When in July 1944 delegates from all over the world sign off the pact, the main goal was to reduce lack of cooperation between countries and therefore avoiding currency wars. This process of regulating the foreign exchange brought to the foundation of the international money fund (IMF) and the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), today part of World bank Group. However, in the early 70s the real-world economics outpaced the system, dollar suffered from severe inflation cutting its value by half. At that time unemployment rate was 6.1% and inflation 5.84%. Finally, in August 1971, U.S. government led by Richard Nixon took away gold standard, creating the first fiat currency and replacing Bretton Woods System with De Facto. Together with this there were other important measures taken by the USA president to combat that high inflation regime:
This decision was driven by many European nations asking to redeem their dollars for gold, till leaving Bretton Woods System. This had an enormous impact on USD which plunged against European currencies. Consequently, USA congress release a report suggesting USD devaluation to protect the currency from foreign gougers. However, dollar dropped again, and Treasury Secretary was directed to suspend the USD convertibility with gold; hence foreign governments could no longer exchange their USD with gold.
The inflation level was skyrocketing and one more action taken by Nixon was to freeze all wages and prices for 90 days, this was the first time since WWII.
Import surcharge of 10% was set up to safeguard American products ensuring no disadvantage in trades.
Today, USD dominates financial markets, accounting together with the EURO, for approximately 50% of all currency exchange transactions in the world. 1971 represents the beginning of a new forex trading era, bringing this market to be the largest and most liquid in the world, with an average of daily trading volume exceeding $5trn. All the world’s combined stock markets don t even come close to this, what does this mean to you? In an environment which is controlled by free-floating currencies moving constantly, following principles of supply and demand, there are constant and exciting trading opportunities, unavailable when investing in different markets. In this article are shared main features of what is forex trading today and how can be an incredible new source of income for everyone who is into financial markets.
What Is Forex?
Forex is the acronym for foreign exchange which intends to be a decentralized or over the counter (OTC) marketplace, where currencies from all over the world are traded 24 hours, five days a week. Main financial centres include New York, Chicago, London, Tokyo and Frankfurt for Eurozone. It is by far the largest market in the world in terms of volume, followed by the credit market. Being highly liquid is an important feature that allows traders to be able to enter and exit their positions very quickly. Nevertheless, while trading forex, an investor should be aware of several components: Dynamicity – forex is an extremely fast environment, this means that currency rates can move very fast, influenced by price action signals and fundamental factors. Therefore, going into forex trading, one needs to be aware of adopting serious risk and money management strategies in order to be effective, limiting losses. Zero Sum Game – trading forex is not like investing in the stock market but is known to be a zero-sum game. For example, going into the equity market buying some tech shares, they could both rise or decrease in value. In forex is different because currencies work in pairs; for instance, an investor decides Euro will go up he or she is doing it against another currency. Thus, in this specific marketplace one currency will rise while the other will fall, meaning an investor is buying the currency hoping it will appreciate to the other, or selling the one that will depreciate. See image below: Figure 1: Main traded currency pairs https://preview.redd.it/vu77ziuoyle31.png?width=574&format=png&auto=webp&s=9b1693bf27508fcb142705c309de1fc5b3e8fa19 Currency pairs are composed by a base and a price currency. Main forex trading principle is how much price currency an investor can buy using 1 unit of the base, thus, the base currency, which is the first one in line within the quotation, is always equal to 1. Because like every financial instrument currency pairs are driven by fundamentals of supply and demand, forex is intensively influenced by geopolitical and macroeconomic factors. Capital Markets – these are the most visible indicators of a country economic health, where usually the healthier the economy the stronger the currency. For example, a rapid sell-off from a country will show that nation is not economically stable, subsequently investors will think negatively of it depreciating its currency. Moreover, many countries are sector driven, this means that their currencies are strictly correlated with certain resources. For instance, Canada which is a commodity-based market, CAD is strictly linked to price of Brent and metals, a swing in those will affect the Canadian currency. Finally, credit market is also connected to forex since also relies heavily on interest rate so, a change in bond yield will have major impact on currency prices. like increase in yield will favour bullish market for USD International Trade – Trade levels serve as a proxy for relative demand of goods from a nation, a country which goods and services that are in high demand internationally, will experience an appreciation to its currency. This is an effect driven by all other countries converting their currencies into the one of that state to purchase its goods and services. Let’s say a product from USA is in high demand globally, all the other countries must sell their currencies to buy dollars to then see their goods shipped, thus USD will appreciate. Trade surplus and deficit also indicate a nation competitive standing in international trade. Countries with a large trade deficit are usually importers resulting in more of their currencies being sold to buy goods worldwide, thus they will see their currencies devaluate. Geopolitics – The political landscape of a nation places a major role in the economic outlook for that country and consequently, the perceived value of its own currency. Beside building up price action strategies, based purely on price levels, forex traders constantly look at economic calendars and news to gauge what could move currencies. A geopolitical event which is having a great impact on GBP, is the election of Boris Johnson as UK prime minister, driving the local currency to 2 years low, yesterday 29th of July 2019. Therefore, when investors observe instability from a nation political environment, there are high chances that the currency of that country will depreciate.
Why Trading Forex
Beside swapping from a gold standard to free-floating, which change the whole forex trading game, technology is another crucial factor that helped this financial sector to spread globally. With the introduction of internet in the 90s forex opened to retail investors giving access to various trading platforms. The introduction of online platforms and retail investments have increased forex market volume by 5%, up to $250bn of its daily turnover. Different traders may have different reasons for selecting forex, however, mostly is because this is a fertile market plenty of daily opportunities to gauge price action and profit from it.
How traders profit from trading forex? Basics of trading are rather simple to understand. An investor buys an asset at a certain price hoping to get rid of it for a higher price. The more volatile is the market for that specific financial instrument, the more revenue is possible to make. Therefore, a trader is looking for long up and down moves rather than market fluctuating sideways. Volatility is great in forex and a trader can expect to regularly see prices oscillating 50-100 pips on major currency pairs almost any day of the week. Yet again, due to this enormous constant fluctuation, potential losses or gains can be very high thus, rigours money management must be applied to avoid major damages and become a profitable trader. To conclude, volatility is the main characteristic investors are looking at and that is why it is one of the main feature traders can take advantage. See image below: Figure 2: FDAX Volatility, H4 (30th May 2019, 16:00, 30th July 2019, 16:00)
Accessibility & Technology
While volatility is the most important element out in the market that tell us why forex is the best market to trade, accessibility comes straight after. This market is more accessible than all the others, trading forex requires an online desk position and as little as $100 to start off an account. In comparison with the other financial markets, forex requires a rather low trading capital. Moreover, trading forex can be easily accessible from your PC, tablet or mobile since most of retail broker firms operate online. Although, accessibility cannot tell the quality of the market by itself, it definitely shows a reason why many investors try their first trading experience on forex. Also, the rapid introduction of technology since the 90s, made trading much easier. There are every year more advanced online platforms to trade on with many possible updates and that is why trading forex is edging for many global investors.
Before the introduction of free-floating currency and more importantly cutting hedge technology, forex was a market that could have been traded only by institutional investors. Nowadays however, even retail and individual investor can take advantage of the huge volume forex offers every day. Banks Interbank market is the major responsible for the high volume registered daily in forex. This is the place where banks exchange currency among each other, facilitating forex transactions for customers and speculate for their trading desks.
Clients transactions: in this case banks of all size act as dealer for clients, where the bid-ask spread represents the profit for the institutions.
Speculation: currencies are traded to profit from their price fluctuations as well as to increase diversification on their portfolio
Because banking institutions are the biggest players in foreign exchange market, they are able to push up and down the price of currencies giving an extreme advantage and higher volatility to individual traders who are trying to gauge price moves. Central Banks Central banks representing their nation’s government, are crucial in forex. They oversee monetary and fiscal policies having massive influence on currency rates. A central bank is responsible for fixing the price level of its native currency on the market, in other words they take care of the regime currencies will float in the open market.
Floating: these are the currencies which price floats on the open market based on principles of supply and demand relative to other currencies
Pegged (fixed exchange rate): opposite to floating currencies pegged ones are not free-floating in the open market however, their government rather tie them to the value of a stronger foreign currency. Pegged currencies are more seen in developing countries (CYN to USD).
Because central banks manage interest rates in order to increase the competitiveness of their native nation to another.
Dovish: these policies will be lowering down interest rates. A central bank which applies dovish conditions aims to give economic stimulus and guard against deflation. Usually a policy intended to give economy stimulus will weakening the currency value.
Hawkish: on the other hand, hawkish policies lead to an increase in interest rate. A central bank that uses hawkish measures aims to reduce inflation. Typically, this kind of policies will reinforce the country currency value.
Investment Managers & Hedge Funds Portfolio managers and hedge funds are the second investors in forex after central and investment banks. They are hired by huge institutions such as pension to manage their assets. However while portfolio managers of pool funds will buy currency to speculate on foreign securities, hedge funds execute speculative trades as part of their strategies. Corporations Also international corporation play a big role in forex. Those firms operating globally, buying and selling goods and services are involved in forex transactions daily. Imagine an American company producing pipes that imports Japanese components and sell the finished product to China. After the sale is closed the CYN must be converted back to USD, while the American company must exchange USD into JPY to repay for the components supply. Moreover, company involved in international trade have an interest in forex in order to hedge the risk associated with currencies fluctuations making several foreign exchange transactions. For instance, the same American company might buy JPY at spot rate, or enter a swap agreement to obtain JPY in advance, overtaking the risk of the Japanese currency to rise in the future. Therefore, forex become crucial to run companies with many subsidiaries and suppliers all over the word. Individual & Retail Investors Even though this investor cluster brings to forex a very limited volume compared to financial institutions and corporations, it is rapidly growing in numbers and popularity. These base their trades on a mixture of fundamentals and technical analysis. Bottom line, main reason why forex is the most traded market in the world is because gives everyone, from top financial institutions to retail and individual trades, opportunities to make returns on capital invested from currencies price fluctuations related to global economy.
Use Online Currency Calculators For Accurate Conversion
Online currency calculators give you accurate results for conversion. If you are planning to travel abroad, you can check the exchange rate through calculators to know about the exact amount. The real and live rates can let you know about the conversion through the calculator. It gives you a great platform where you can convert currency at no extra costs. The best part about online currency calculator is that it lets you convert currencies of the world. If you travel to any part of the world, you can use a calculator to convert the currency of that particular country. It's flexible and gives you faster results. Bookmyforex.com has a currency converter you can use to convert currencies of more than 29 countries of the world. It lets you convert currency at a better rate if you compare it with airport kiosks. It lets you convert with live market rates so the result is accurate. Euro Currency calculator lets you convert directly and there is no third person involved. It's easy to calculate currency with simple steps. Use Bookmyforex.com site for currency conversion. If you need to convert INR to other currency, just choose the country. Enter the Forex rate and amount of the currency you need to convert. Once you get the results, you can use the amount while traveling. https://preview.redd.it/917a4l8t5y631.jpg?width=276&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=24a18e03b294ee0c90f56c8f3b30e4bc1ad2428e Currency calculator lets you convert through live rates. You don't have to pay added costs or fees for converting the currency. Bookmyforex.com's currency converter lets you convert currency in a hassle free way. You'll be able to exchange from INR to any foreign currency. You'll also be able to convert foreign currency to INR with the converter or calculator. Bookmyforex.com also lets you calculate interbank rates and you can calculate that rate as well. If you want to compare a rate looking at the exchange price in Google, you can easily do that. The interbank rate will also give you results. Currency exchange calculator helps you with the exchange of currency so that you get the best deal. If you are traveling, that'll help you with the exact currency exchange. Use Bookmyforex.com currency converter for best results.
Pakistan's rupee keeps sliding after IMF loan accord reached
This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 35%. (I'm a bot)
The rupee, which lost 3.6 per cent on Thursday to close at 146.2 against the U.S. dollar in the interbank market, dropped further on Friday, dealers said, selling at 149.50 in the interbank market and 150 in the open market. The fall reflects the IMF's condition for a "Market-based exchange rate mechanism, which will see limited intervention by the central bank now," said Saad Hashemy, chief economist and research director at Topline Securities in Karachi. Pakistan's stock market also declined on Friday, with the benchmark KSE 100 index down 2.4 per cent by 0615 GMT. While the exact conditions of a final IMF deal are still unknown, Sunday's Staff-Level accord, which must still be approved by the Fund's board in Washington, said a "Market-determined" exchange rate would help the financial sector. Late on Thursday, the central bank issued a statement saying the sharp fall in the rupee "Reflects demand and supply conditions in the foreign exchange market" and would help in correcting market imbalances. While many analysts see the rupee as overvalued and say the central bank has wasted billions defending it, a weaker currency is likely to fuel inflation, which is already over 8 per cent, with power and fuel prices hit especially hard. The central bank, which is due to announce its latest interest rate decision on Monday, said late on Thursday that its foreign exchange reserves fell $138 million in the week ending May 10 to $8.846 billion, less than needed to cover three months of imports.
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Interbank rates. Home / Treasury and the Markets / Historical Interbank FX Rates. Historical Interbank FX Rates. Date Currency Currency Pair Buying Selling Mid Rate ; Date Currency Currency Pair Buying Selling Mid Rate; 11 Jan 1996: US Dollar: USDGHS: 1,448.3600: 1,471.5500: 1,459.9550 : 09 Jan 1996: US Dollar: USDGHS ... The forex interbank market is a credit approved system in which banks trade based solely on the credit relationships they have established. All of the banks can see the best market rates currently ... Forex.pk maintains accuracy by timely updating Inter bank rates as per Pakistan market received from various authentic sources. However these are only the indicative inter bank exchange rates. Forex.pk also offer Interbank exchange rate to some local News websites. FOREX.pk is not responsible or liable whatsoever with respect to any ... Stan Interbank Forex Rates Live Exchange Rate. Thailand Forex Us Dollar Weighted Avg Interbank Exchange Rate. Interbank Forex Rate In Nigeria Factsheet S Numerous. Vicentiu Covrig 1 The Market For Foreign Exchange. Beat The Interbank Exchange Rate Currencyfair. The Professional Interbank Forex Market Venusfactorplan Ml ... The data covers all spot transactions on the interbank m arkets as well as transactions with their clients that have nominal values of US$10,000 or more. The data submitted is used to compute the weighted average exchange rate. The weighted exchange rate is published on the Bank of Ghana website, as the closing rate for the day’s transactions. Rates Delayed For Live Rates Subscribe. IndiaFX ; GlobalFX; The Rupee opened weaker against its previous close today on the back of expectations that the Reserve Bank of India may continue to purchase the greenback irrespective of the global market sentiment. For last few days, the central bank has been standing in the way of rupee's appreciation and mopping up dollars aggressively, especially ... Access currency exchange rates back to January, 1990: Type currency names, 3-letter ISO currency symbols, or country names to select your currency. Convert world currencies, precious metals, or obsolete currencies, which are marked with an asterisk (*). Choose a percentage from the interbank rate list to better approximate the tourist exchange rates actually charged by your financial ... How Interbank Exchange Rates Work. Interbank exchanges can be thought of as the price of purchasing one currency for another. These rates enable you to know how much your currency is worth in another currency. For example, one USD might worth 0.77 GBP. You can get different currency pairs direct from Google simply by typing in the currency you have followed by the currency you want to change ... Interbank And Live Exchange Rates Foreign exchange rates are always on the move, so it’s wise to check out the charts before you make your payment. Interbank rates, also commonly referred to as market rates, are the official live conversion rates for a given currency pair. The interbank rate is the constantly fluctuating price at which banks trade currencies with each other. Unfortunately ... On the other hand, the so-called big players in the form of banks, hedge funds, and other large financial institutions determine the future change of the forex market price. All these big players are trading on the so-called interbank market where millions and billions of orders meet. The Forex market reacts strongly to these large orders.
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